讲座题目：AOP based integrated approaches to testing and assessment for skin sensitization hazard and potency
主 讲 人：张全顺 美国体外科学研究院教育和外联项目科学计划主任
张全顺，资深毒理学科学家，毕业于南京农业大学，现任美国体外科学研究所（Institute for In Vitro Sciences，IIVS）教育和外联项目科学计划主任。张博士曾在上海出入境检验检疫局从事产品毒理学检测及临床安全评价工作，有十年的海关检疫工作经验，2000年赴美在普洛威顿斯学院和塔夫茨大学从事产品安全检测和临床评价的研究工作，积累了丰富的化妆品产品研发，安全和功效评价经验。张博士曾担任塔夫茨大学的研究助理教授，积累了丰富的化妆品产品研发，安全和功效评价经验。目前他负责的化妆品体外安全功效评价教育和外联项目主要在中国，巴西和俄罗斯进行。
Skin sensitization is a common toxicity endpoint of concern in various industries and accounts for 10-15% of known occupational illness in the U.S. and Europe. Mechanisms of skin sensitization have been investigated intensively for many years and are documented by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in its publication, ”The Adverse Outcome Pathway for Skin Sensitization Initiated by Covalent Binding to Proteins”. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) includes four key mechanistic events: (1) binding of hapten to endogenous proteins in the skin, (2) keratinocyte activation, (3) dendritic cell activation, and (4) proliferation of antigen-specific T cells. The most commonly used animal test, the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is based on the understanding of this complex series of events underlying the immune response after expose to a chemical sensitizer, and covers all key events. However, the construction of the AOP for skin sensitization has enabled the development of a multitude of non-animal test methods that are associated with one or more of the AOP key events. However, the complexity of the underlying biology indicates that no single measurement is yet sufficient to predict sensitizer potency. Therefore, it is generally assumed that only a combination of several methods in an integrated testing strategy will obviate the need for animal testing. Many testing strategies combining non-animal methods are developed with defined approaches. The defined approaches are able to either predict skin sensitization hazard (sensitizer versus non-sensitizer) or assign the test substance to one of three skin sensitization potency categories. Here we will introduce an evaluation of defined approaches (DAs) representing non-animal skin sensitization testing strategies performed by the Cosmetics Europe skin tolerance task force and the National Toxicology Program Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods.